Appendices - Hirohito's War

A. Submarines: America Draws Tight the Noose
December 1941 – August 1945

[Charts: A.1]
Planned Submarine Attack on the Panama CanalThe Failure of Japanese Submarine DesignWasteful Dissipation of Japanese Submarine ForceJapanese Submarine Cargo Missions to EuropeJapanese Submarines’ Disappointing ‘Kill’ PerformanceJapan’s ‘Long Lance’ JockeysNewport Torpedo StationRear Admiral Charles LockwoodUS Submarine Achievements in the Pacific WarThe Failure of Japanese Counter-Submarine StrategyThe Missed Opportunity 
B. Oil, Raw Materials and Logistics: 'Just Start Swinging'
December 1941 to August 1945

[Charts: B.1, B.2 ]
Logistics of Oil in the Asia Pacific WarAmerica’s T-2 TankerJapan’s Oil Tanker FleetRaw Materials Issues of the US EconomyLiberty Ships ‘to go’Attack Cargo Ships, LSTs and Higgins BoatsJapan’s Cargo Ship ProblemsJapan’s Air Force LogisticsUS Supply Logistics in the Asia Pacific RegionOperation Olympic and Japan’s Logistical Denouement 
C. Economics of the Pacific War: The 'New Deal' Mobilized
[Charts: C.1, C.2, C.3, C.4, C.5, C.6, C.7, C.8, C.9, C.10, C.11, C.12, C.13, C.14, C.15 ]
Management of the US Wartime EconomyGuns and ButterInflation and ‘General Max’Production Line and Management SystemsProductivity, Entrepreneurs, Management, Labor, Blacks and WomenManaging the ScientistsExpansion of America’s Productive CapacityUS Aircraft ProductionTanks, Artillery, Trucks, Ordnance and the Problem of ObsolescenceElectronics, Radio, and RadarWas the Depression a Boon or Hindrance to US War Mobilization?Japan’s Wartime EconomyConclusion 
D. ‘Victory Disease’: The Japanese Empire: From Co-Prosperity to Tyranny
[Charts: D.1, D.2 ]
The Four Phases of Japan’s Imperial ExpansionThe Economics and Philosophy of Japan’s Co-Prosperity SphereOld Empire, Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria,  The Structures of Japan’s New Empire,  Slave Labor in Japan and in the FieldCruelty and SuppressionPrisoners of WarThe Psychology of BrutalityUnit 731 and the Secrets of Medical ExperimentationConclusion
E. Typhoons and Divine Winds: Kamikaze
[October 1944 to August 1945]

[Charts: E.1 ]
IntroductionHalsey: After Leyte GulfKamikaze: Individual BeginningsThe Formal Adoption of a Kamikaze as a StrategyRecruitment, Motivation and TrainingJapanese Government PropagandaDevelopments in Kamikaze Technology and the US ResponseNaval Kamikaze and Yamato’s Suicide MissionUS Defense TacticsFight to the Death and Operation KETSU (Decisive)Admiral Ugaki, The Last KamikazeThe Cost and Effectiveness of the Kamikaze CampaignKamikaze: A Unique Japanese Phenomenon? 
F. American Intelligence in the Pacific War
G. Could Japan Have Won the Pacific War?
Introduction Distance, Logistics and Extension of Power Mobilization, Logistics, Isolationism and the Will to Fight Weapons that could have won Japan the War Strategies for Japanese Victory Conclusion  
H. Month by Month Timeline of the Pacific War
[December 1941 - August 1945]
I. The 'Pacific War': Sundry Tables and Lists
J. Pacific War Photographs
K. The Battle of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
L. The Battles of Attu and Kiska
Attu and Kiska
M. Aircraft Carriers in the Pacific War
SummaryComparison of Pacific War Aircraft CarriersEssex Class CarriersUS Light CarriersJapanese fleet carriers 
N. The Role of Oil in the Pacific War
[Charts: N.1, N.2, N.3, N.4, N.5]
Oil’s Early HistoryDevelopment of the Oil Industry in the United StatesRoyal Dutch ShellThe Growth of Oil Fired Engines in the Marine IndustryThe Rise of the AutomobileTanks and Trucks Transform Battlefield MobilityAviation GasolineInterwar Development of the Aeronautical IndustryGlobal Oil OutputOil and the Decision for WarConclusion  
O. Japanese - Soviet Conflict in Siberia, Mongolia and Manchuria
[April 1945–5 September 1945]

[Maps: 39.1, 39.2, 39.3, 39.4, 39.5, 39.6]
IntroductionRusso-Japanese Relations from the Late Nineteenth CenturyThe Trans-Siberian Railway Transforms the Geopolitics of Northeast AsiaThe Battle of Lake Khasan and Amur River ClashesThe Japanese-Soviet Neutrality PactThe Yalta ConferenceJapanese Preparations for the Defense of ManchuriaDeployment of Soviet ForcesSoviet Invasion of Northwest Manchuria from MongoliaInvasion of Northeast Manchuria from Far Eastern SiberiaThe Battle of MutanchiangThe Battle of Sakhalin IslandThe Occupation of the Kuril Islands  The Significance of the Soviet Invasions 

E. Typhoons and Divine Winds: Kamikaze

Developments in Kamikaze Technology and the US Response: As the kamikaze campaign developed so did the weaponry that they used. At first, the airplanes used were Mitsubishi Zero fighters or Aichi D3A dive-bombers loaded with heavy bombs. Later, sophistication was added by the special packing of the Japanese kamikaze aircraft with explosives. In addition Yokosuka D4Y ‘Judy’ bombers and Kawasaki Ki-48s, with their bigger payloads, were converted for use as suicide aircraft. Seven of the latter aircraft were launched from Palembang in Sumatra and aimed at the British fleet on 29 January 1945. Twin-engine Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryu ‘Peggy’ bombers based in Formosa were also used.

Special kamikaze aircraft were also developed. Mitsuo Ohta, an ensign, had suggested that a mother plane, a twin-engine ‘Betty’ bomber should launch kamikaze pilots in glider bombs. His idea was taken up by the First Naval Air Technical Bureau in Yokosuka, which developed rockets that could be launched from the underside of Japanese bombers with pilots strapped to them like jockeys, who were provided with rudimentary steering controls. These Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka (cherry-blossom) rocket planes, carrying a ton of tri-nitro-anisol explosive, looked like torpedoes with wings. They were nicknamed Baka bombs (idiot bombs) by American sailors.

They were first used on 11 March 1945. Admiral Mitscher’s interceptor pilots noticed that the ‘Betty’ bombers were slower than usual and looked odd. When intelligence photos revealed that there was a winged bomb under each wing, the American Admiral realized that they had a new kamikaze weapon to deal with. Faster than conventional aircraft, the Ohka could travel at 500 knots and was extremely difficult to shoot down. On the 9 April, at the opening of the Battle of Okinawa, a baka hit the destroyer USS Mannert L. Abele, lifted it out of the water and broke it in two. The US destroyer sank in minutes. In addition a cheaply built wooden framed plane built around a Nakajima engine, the Ki-115 Tsurugi (sabre), was specifically designed for kamikaze pilots. Its simple, non-retractable landing gear, surplus to requirements after takeoff, was jettisoned and could be reused. The Japanese Army began to stockpile Ki-115 Tsurugis on Kyushu Island, the third largest of the home islands, when it became evident that this would be the likely next invasion point for US forces.

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