Notes - Hirohito's War

Chapter 1 - Empires in Conflict
Chapter 2 - Ultra-nationalism and the Death of Democracy
Chapter 3 - Japan versus China: From Phoney War to Total War
Chapter 4 - Mobilization for War in Asia: America and Japan
Chapter 5 - Pearl Harbor: Yamamoto’s Great Mistake
Chapter 6 - Plan ORANGE and MacArthur’s Philippines Debacle
Chapter 7 - Invasion of Malaya: Yamashita’s ‘Bicycle Blitzkrieg’
Chapter 8 - Fall of Singapore: Churchill’s Sacrificial Pawn
Chapter 9 - Burma Corps: Humiliation Then a Fighting Retreat
Chapter 10 - Dutch East Indies and Japan’s Quest for Oil
Chapter 11 - Limits of Empire: Doolittle and New Military Strategies
Chapter 12 - Battle of the Coral Sea: The First Carrier ‘Shoot-Out’
Chapter 13 - Battle of Midway: Nimitz’s Lucky Day
Chapter 14 - Battles of the Kokoda Trail: Aussies Triumphant
Chapter 15 - Guadalcanal: Battles of Tulagi, Savo Island, Tenaru and East Solomons
Chapter 16 - Guadalcanal: Battle of Edson’s (Bloody) Ridge
Chapter 17 - Guadalcanal: Henderson Field and the Santa Cruz Islands
Chapter 18 - Battles of Buna-Gona-Sanananda: MacArthur’s Lies and Neglect
Chapter 19 - Guadalcanal: Battle of Tassafaronga and Final Reckonings
Chapter 20 - Battle of the Bismarck Sea: Tipping Point of US Air Supremacy
Chapter 21 - Yamamoto Assassinated and the Battle of New Georgia
Chapter 22 - The Huon Peninsula: Operation CARTWHEEL Completed
Chapter 23 - The Isolation of Rabaul and the Starvation of Bougainville
Chapter 24 - The Battles of Arakan, Imphal, and Kohima: Slim Boxes Clever
Chapter 25 - The ICHI-GO Campaign and the Battle of Myitkyina
Chapter 26 - Battle for China: FDR, Chiang, Mao, and ‘Vinegar Joe’
Chapter 27 - Jump to Hollandia: MacArthur’s Greatest Victory
Chapter 28 - Pacific Island Hop: The Gilberts, Marshalls, and Carolines
Chapter 29 - The Great Marianas ‘Turkey Shoot’
Chapter 30 - The Invasions of Saipan, Tinian, and Guam: General Tojo Upended
Chapter 31 - The Battle of Leyte Gulf: ‘Bull’ Halsey’s Mad Dash for Glory
Chapter 32 - “I Have Returned”: MacArthur Regains the Philippines
Chapter 33 - The Battle of the Irrawaddy River: Slim’s ‘Mandalay Feint’
Chapter 34 - Iwo Jima: The Iconic Battle of the Pacific War
Chapter 35 - The Battle of Okinawa: Slaughter of the Innocents
Chapter 36 - LeMay’s B-29 Superfortresses over Japan: Cities in Ashes
Chapter 37 - Potsdam, Hirohito, and the Atom Bomb


1        Tamagumi, Toshio,, p.1

2        Ibid., p.1

3        Bergamini, David, Japan’s Imperial Conspiracy; How the Emperor Hirohito led Japan into war against the West (Edwin Mellen Press, 2006) p.14

4        Harmsen, Peter, Shanghai 1937, Stalingrad on the Yangtze (Casemate Publishers, Oxford, 2013) p.23

5         Ibid., p.23

6         Ibid., p.24

7         Ibid., p.25

8         Ibid., p.39

9         Ibid., p.25

10       Ibid., p.51

11       Ibid., p.246

12       Dower, John, Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Aftermath of World War II (Allen Lane, London, 1999) p.108

13       Roberts, John G., Mitsui, Three Centuries of a Japanese Business (Weatherhall Inc., New York, 1983) p.316

14       Bergamini, Japan’s Imperial Conspiracy, p.23

15       Ibid., p.17

16        Chang, Iris, The Rape of Nanking, The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II (Basic Books, New York, 2011) p.38

17        Bergamini, Japan’s Imperial Conspiracy, p.17

18        Chang, The Rape of Nanking, p.40-41

19        Ibid., p.43

20        Ibid., p.45

21        Bergamini, Japan’s Imperial Conspiracy, p.37

22        Chang, The Rape of Nanking, p.49

23        Ibid., p.49

24        Bergamini, Japan’s Imperial Conspiracy, p.41

25        Chang, The Rape of Nanking, p.51

26        Ibid., p.59

27         Bergamini, Japan’s Imperial Conspiracy, p.21

28         Chang, The Rape of Nanking, p.56

29         Ibid., p.85

30         Ibid., p.121

31         Utley, Jonathan G., Going to War with Japan 1937 – 1941 (Fordham University Press, New York, 2005) p.25

32         Ibid., p.27

33         Ibid., p.36

34         Churchill, Winston, Step by Step (Odhams Press Limited, London, 1947: first published 1939) p.193

35         Ibid., p.193

36         Utley, Going to War with Japan, p.54

37         Ibid., p.87

38         De Bary, William Theodore, Sources of East Asian Tradition: The Modern Period (Columbia University Press, New York, 2008) p.622

39         Ibid., p.622

40         Black, Conrad, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Champion of Freedom (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 2003) p.1118

41         Ibid., p.1118

42         Ibid., p.1118

43         Fullilove, Michael, Rendezvous with Destiny (The Penguin Press, New York, 2013) prologue,

44         Smith, Jean Edward, FDR (Random House, New York, 2008) p.292

45         Fullilove, Rendezvous with Destiny, prologue

46         Smith, FDR, p.292

47         Haines, Gerald K. and J. Samuel Walker ed., American Foreign Relations, A Historiographical Review: Stoler, Mark A., World War II Diplomacy, Prelude to Cold War (Frances Pinter, London, 1981) p.191

48         Haines and Walker, ed., Roads to War: Haines, p.48

49         Smith, FDR, p.419

50         Black, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, p.426

51         Morgan, Ted, FDR, A Biography (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1985) p.486

52         Smith, FDR, p.419

53         Ibid., p.420


55         Smith, FDR, p.421

56         Costello, John, The Pacific War, 1941-1945 (Harper Perennial, New York, 2009) p.77

57         Ibid., p.79

58         Smith, FDR, p.510

59         Fullilove, Rendezvous with Destiny, prologue

60         Smith, FDR, p.515

61         Ibid., p.515

62         Ibid., p.511

63         Morgan, FDR, p.577

64         Costello, The Pacific War, p.77

65         Colvin, John, Nomonhan (Quartet Books, London, 1999) p.37

66         Ibid., p.27

67       Ibid., p.89

68      Ibid., p.158-9

69      Bergamini, Japan’s Imperial Conspiracy, p.707

70      Nedialkov, Dimitar, In the Skies of Nomonhan, Japan versus Russia, May – September 1939 (Crécy Publishing Limited, Manchester, 2005) p.143

71      Bergamini, Japan’s Imperial Conspiracy, p.707

72      Toland, John, Rising Sun, The Rise and Fall of the Japanese Empire, 1935 - 1945 (Random House, New York, 1970: Reprinted 2003) p.59

73      Duus, Peter, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, Volume 6 The Twentieth Century (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1988, 9th Printing) p.128

74      Roberts, John, Mitsui, Three Centuries of Japanese Business (Weatherhill, 1973) p.33

75      Sims, Richard, Japanese Political History Since the Meiji Restoration 1868 – 2000 (Palgrave, New York, 2001) p.209

76      Akinaga Tsukizō, “Idai naru kokuryoku no saikentō,” Jitsugyō no sekai (October 1941), p.21

77      Costello, The Pacific War, p.65

78      Ibid., p.71

79      Ibid., p.71

80      Utley, Going to War with Japan, p.110

81      Ibid., p.114

82      Ibid., p.117

83      Ibid., p.133

84      Ibid., p.135

85      Hotta, Eri, 1941, Countdown to Infamy (Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2003) p.126

86      Barnhart, Michael, Japan Prepares for Total War, The Search for Economic Security 1919 – 1941 (Cornell University, 1987) p.211

87     Hotta, 1941, p.127

88     Ibid., p.130

89     Ibid., p.131

90     Ibid., p.135

91     Harvey, Robert, American Shogun, MacArthur, Hirohito and the American Duel with Japan (John Murray, London, 2006) p.89

92     Dower, Embracing Defeat, p.335

93     Freiner, Nicole, The Social and Gender Politics of Confucian Nationalism: Women and the Japanese Nation State (Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2012) p.87

94     Okano, Kaori; Motonori Tsuchiya, Education in Contemporary Japan (Cambridge University Press, 1999) p.48

95     Duus, Peter; Myers, H. Ramon; Peattie, Mark R., ed., The Japanese Wartime Empire 1931-1945 (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2006) p.311

96     Bix, Herbert, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan (Duckworth, London, 2000) p.585

97     Ibid., p.409

98     Behr, Edward, Hirohito, Behind the Myth (Hamish Hamilton, London, 1989) p.414

99     Bix, Hirohito, p.7/8

100   Wakabayashi, Bob, Tadashi, Emperor Hirohito on Localized Aggression in China (York University, Toronto) p.20

101   Large, Professor Stephen, Emperor Hirohito: From ‘Myth to History’: Tomlinson Memorial Lecture, 2000:

102     Sims, Japanese Political History, p.191

103     Bergamini, Japan’s Imperial Conspiracy, p.xxviii

104     Large, Professor Stephen, Emperor Hirohito: From ‘Myth to History’: Tomlinson Memorial Lecture, 2000:

105     Kawahara, Toshiaki, Hirohito and his Times (Kodansha America, 1990) p.116

106     Ibid., p.109

107     Ibid., p.109

108     Wakabayashi, Bob, Tadashi, Emperor Hirohito on Localized Aggression in China (York University, Toronto) p.5

109     Ibid., p.5

110     Kojima Noboru, Tenno to Senso sekinin (Tokyo: Bungei shunjiisha,1988), p , 73:  from Wakabayashi, Bob, Tadashi, Emperor Hirohito on Localized Aggression in China (York University, Toronto) p.1

111    Behr, Hirohito, p.3

112    Large, Professor Stephen, Emperor Hirohito: From ‘Myth to History’: Tomlinson Memorial Lecture, 2000:

113    Bix, Hirohito, p.3

114    Hiroshi, Takahashi, Heika Otazune Moshiagemasu (Bungei Shinjusha, Tokyo, 1988) p.220: From Wakabayashi, Bob, Tadashi, Emperor Hirohito on Localized Aggression in China (York University, Toronto) p.6

115    Bergamini, Japan’s Imperial Conspiracy, p.xxvi

116    Bix, Hirohito, p.12

117    Bergamini, Japan’s Imperial Conspiracy, p.xxxxvi

118    Ibid., p.25

119    Bix, Hirohito, p.348

120    Fujin Gaho (April 1934) p.166: From Wakabayashi, Emperor Hirohito, p.12

121    Wakabayashi, Emperor Hirohito, p.12

122    Ibid., p.15

123    Akira Fujiwara, Shôwa tennô no ju-go nen sensô (The Showa Emperor’s Fifteen Year War) (Aoiki Shoten, 1991) p. 126, (citing Kenji Tomita's diary.)

124    Bix, Hirohito, p.372

125    Large, Professor Stephen, Emperor Hirohito: From ‘Myth to History’: Tomlinson Memorial Lecture, 2000:

126    Wakabayashi, Emperor Hirohito, p.20

127    Ibid., p.18

128    Large, Professor Stephen, Emperor Hirohito: From ‘Myth to History’: Tomlinson Memorial Lecture, 2000:

129    Large, Stephen, Emperor Hirohito and Showa Japan, A Political Biography (Routledge, London, 1992) p.205

130     Roling B.V.A and Antonio Cassesse, The Tokyo Trial and Beyond (The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 90, No. 2, 1996) p.39

131     Bix, Hirohito, p.610

132     Ibid., p.610

133     Totani, Yuma, Tokyo War Crimes Trial: The Pursuit of Justice in the Wake of World War II (Harvard University Press, Boston, 2008) p.203

134     Dower, Embracing Defeat, p.378

135     Duus, Peter, Japan’s Wartime Empire: Problems and Issues: from The Japanese Wartime Empire 1931 – 1945, p.xi

136    Colvin, Nomohan, p.12

137    Miller, Edward, Bankrupting the Enemy, The US Financial Siege of Japan before Pearl Harbor (Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 2007) p.191

138    Chace, James, Acheson, The Secretary of State Who Created the American World (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1998) p.85

139    Uttley, Going to War with Japan, p.155

140    Atlantic Charter;

141    Prange, Gordon, At Dawn We Slept (Penguin, New York, 1981) p.206

142    Black, Roosevelt, p.656

143    Ibid., p.657

144    Miller, Bankrupting the Enemy, p.222

145    Harvey, Robert, American Shogun, General MacArthur, Emperor Hirohito and the Drama of Modern Japan (Overlook TP, 2007) p.187

146    Chace, Acheson, p.86

147    Iguchi, Takeo, Demystifying Pearl Harbor: A New Perspective from Japan (I-House Press, 2010) p.75

148    Reynolds, Bruce and Joseph P. Sottile, The Fascist Era: Imperial Japan and the Axis Alliance in Historical Perspective: from Japan in the Fascist Era (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2004) p.12